Holly an her brother Matt were on a raft when they hit a large branch of a tree that was in the water and poked a big hole in it. Water started coming in at a rate of 10 gallons per minutes. Their raft officially sinks with 30 gallons. If Matt is paddling to shore a half-mile away at the rate of 4 miles per hour, what is the minimum rate that Holly must bail out water so that their trip to shore with not include swimming?
Oh boy! First, you need to know what the words mean: a raft is a flat structure that does have an "in" for water to come. Second, you need to read what you write so you can catch spelling mistrakes before witnesses see them. Third, you need to get familiar with numbers because in this world we live by numbers.
Get a ruler in your hands. Measure things until you start to understand how a ruler works. Measure some stuff and figure out where the center is. Say you measure a book and it's 7/8" thick. You look at your ruler and see that every eighth is divided into two sixteenths, so obviously half of 7/8" is going to be 7/16". If you write that out you have 1/2 x 7/8 = 7/16. And you notice that 1/2 is divided into 2/4 and then into 4/8 and so on, so you can convert anything to anything by multiplying all the numbers on top and then all the numbers on bottom.
Other rulers are divided into 10 and 100 parts. But an inch is still an inch, so anything on one ruler can be translated to the other ruler. A half inch on one ruler is 5/10 or 50/100 on the other. An eighth inch is just 12.5 marks when you have 100 marks per inch. A metric ruler divides an inch into 25.4 parts, so a half inch would be 12.7 of those parts. Pretty simple, isn't it? Practice this a bit and people will think you went to wizard school.
Now the scenario: At four miles per hour, a half mile trip takes (1/2)/4 = 1/8 hour which equals 7.5 minutes. In that time the water taken on will be 7.5 x 10 gpm = 75 gallons. You have to throw out water at the rate of 45 gal/7.5 min = 6 gal/min.
Follow my advice and you will do things like this in your head.