... Melvin had a gross income of $44,000 last year, while Sylvia had a gross income of $51,200; they plan to use the standard deduction. They're trying to decide whether to file their return jointly or separately, so they want to calculate how much less they would pay in federal income taxes if they filed jointly rather than separately.
1. When filing separately, both Melvin and Sylvia have a standard deduction of $5700, and each can claim himself or herself as an exemption for $3650. Neither has any additional adjustments to income. What Melvin's taxable income? How about Sylvia's taxable income?